Herbicides are substances used for the control of weeds. The most common herbicides are synthetic chemical compounds, often xenobionts i.e. chemically extraneous , or compounds naturally present in living beings. Herbicides can be classified according to the chemistry of the active ingredients or according to the target plant species. In particular, for weeds it is possible to distinguish dicotyledons from monocotyledons, respectively called broad-leaved and narrow-leaved species. There are herbicides able to hit one and saving the others, which absorb the active principle, but they detoxify it. Some active ingredients indiscriminately affect mono and dicotyledons, such as glyphosate.
Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide for post-emergence (phytotoxic for all plants). Unlike other products, it is absorbed by leaves, but subsequently moved to any other position of the plant mainly via phloem (systemic compound). This gives it the fundamental characteristic of being able to devitalize even the organs of hypogeum conservation of weeds, such as rhizomes, and toots in general, which in no other way could be devitalized. The absorption of the product takes place in 5-6 hours, and the desiccating of vegetation is usually observable after 10-12 days. Glyphosate interrupts the metabolic pathway responsible for the synthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, inhibiting the synthesis of 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase, an enzyme necessary for plant survival.
NEXT Genomics will develop an integrated plan for the monitoring of glyphosate and AMPA, in surface waters and on solitary bees present in Carmignano and in neighboring territories.